Quite simply, we cannot claim to achieve the benefits of a sharing economy if user's profits and conditions are not autonomously managed…

Exploring peer reviewed, academic journal articles on the gig economy’s global socio-economic impact


We touch on six and list three in full below. The first hails from the New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations [205] with the second from the International Journal of Education and Management Studies [206] focusing more on India. The third, from the Notre Dame Law Review [210] takes a more optimistic counter-point from a legal framework perspective. All have been published in late 2018 and with an estimated 398.6 million workers having “poor quality” jobs on the sub-continent alone, for what may soon become the majority of the world, it is apparent that shifting working structures through digital influences offer a newly palpable, albeit possible broadly challenging reality

As facilitated primarily by online platforms and mobile applications, there can be a deep depersonalization of working relationships through digitally led, worker role repositioning. For businesses, someone once considered an employee can today be a faceless, or at the very least highly distanced, method of task completion

Although employment has long been segmented from a holding of the formerly and once stereotypical ‘9 to 5’ lifetime position in a single institution, the ongoing ramifications of gig economics raise a host of noteworthy considerations;

  • New technologies have been introduced to support, bolster, streamline or otherwise improve existing business methodologies and requirements. Introduction of the gig platforms and applications is a first phase transition
  • Technological advancements may threaten anywhere from 4% to more than 40% of existing jobs over the next decade with the majority facing major restructuring [according to some estimations by say the 2018 OCED study, with the G7 variation here]. The fastest growth potentials currently exist with such sites like AirBnB and Uber – the gig based accommodation and passenger transport booking sectors
  • Gig site structures may be recreating a digital system that is more akin to interconnected feudal control, as say through directly or indirectly limiting prices alongside subsequent user profitability and ranking or score algorithms promoting some whilst burying others into obscurity. This can be through a strict cap on totals or more insidiously, suggestions and setting of ‘averages’. Yet with traditional employment structures removed and only per-contract set, ongoing corporate liability or wealth sharing and ‘employee benefits’ from either the gig site's operating entity and centralized government towards the now gig-only workers can be all but removed. The solution is an autonomous defining of all terms throughout conscious participation, which we touch on later and in other articles
  • It could be erroneous to classify users of the above mentioned gig sites as ‘micro-entrepreneurs’. The above websites and digital services sustain both subtle and direct restrictive structural forces which prohibit the commonly perceived extent of freedom often believed as inherently prescribed through participation. Counter points to facilitating a 'sharing' of realized utopian ideals through the current structures can be easily drawn in light of ongoing evidenced widespread rises in inequality - particularly among the countries with the highest adoption rates of gig economics [full report here]

Quite simply, we cannot claim to achieve the benefits of a 'sharing economy' if profits and conditions are not autonomously managed

It is important to note that while perhaps no longer a legal stipulation, in principle, it is business' primary obligation, particularly publicly listed corporations, to maximize profits. Existing methodologies have been regulated by centralized entities, such as the government and corresponding labour or legal legislation. Following the reclassification of labour roles, it is worthwhile to question whether this regulatory structure does today equally apply in a sharing or gig economy

Mitigation or bypassing centralized employment protection frameworks, as through contract-worker's mass gig participation, may require user's ownership distribution and controls be likewise restructured


In a perfectly competitive and globally connected marketplace, the control of profitable sustainability within the gig economy could pass primarily to the organizing or hosting business entity itself, which itself is furthermore now unburdened by employment regulations with seemingly no adjusted operational hindrance of tangible productivity. In other words, it is possible that the centralized gig coordination service itself reaps eclectic commissions irrespective of their users or 'workers' location, schedules or individual ongoing profitability

A shift to gig engagements operating under the existing centralized framework structure allows hosting or facilitating businesses to reap the competitive advantages with cost saving benefits, absent adjusted accountability. With identical establishment and operational requirements, business entities in the gig world may continue long sanctioned for-profit practices. Concurrently, former employees now and perhaps unwittingly sacrifice security alongside a plethora of centralized framework protections, potentially only gaining unpredictable freedom in selectivity and working hour flexibility

The scales do not yet appear balanced. Yet we appreciate that when correctly implemented publicly anonymized blockchain, the RWSC® and various bespoke decentralized ledger technologies hold the solution. A decentralization and private control of trusted engagement or exchange is possible

During first phase implementation TOF® focuses on the existing direct services whom have long operated under an offline gig booking structure, e.g. tattoo artists or performance artists. Member's activities and controls are further bolstered by direct copyright ownership of documentation as well as multimedia. TOF® Biosphere just removes the middlemen and agents whilst guaranteeing direct full payments under protected terms of engagement

Here, each member sets their own prices, receives 100% payment and the only additional cost for the entire process arises when a booking client makes a nominal one-time platform purchase of encrypted blockchain registration so as to protect both sides throughout their own end-to-end encrypted collaboration. No sales algorithms. No advertisements. No commissions

TOF® methodologies of trusted private control and payments permit user-led restructuring. As the logical next step, we are making choice personal

zero trust